Sinharaja Rain Forest Trail Map

Sinharaja Trail Map

A – Kudawa Conservation Centre
B – Jeep track from Kudawa Conservation Centre to Kudawa Research Station
C – Mulawella Peak
D – Kudawa Research Station
E – Gal Yen Yaya
F – Sinhagala Peak
G – Pitadeniya Conservation Centre
H – Pitadeniya Ticket Counter
I – Track from Mediripitiya to Pitadeniya Conservation Centre
J – Kohila Aramba
K – Kekuna Ella
L – Patan-oya Ella
M – Duwili Ella (Kosmulla)
N – Morningside Conservation Centre
O – Natural Pool
P – Duwili Ella (Morningside)

1 – Wathurawa- Mulawella
2 – From Kudawa Conservation Centre to Nawanda Tree
3 – From Sinhagala Trail to Gal Len Yaya
4 – Sinhagala trail from Kudawa
5 – Kohila Aamba Trail
6 – Kekuna Ella and Pata-oua Ella Trail
7 – Sinhagala Trail from Pitadeniya
8 – Duwili Ella Trail from Denuwakanda
9 – Duwili Ella Trail from MCC
10 – From Morningside to the natural pool
11 – Trail from Kosmulla via Duwili Ella to Siththara gal lena (cave)

sinharaja forest

Sinharaja Forest

Sinharaja Forest

Trail Map of Sinharaja     Travel Information
Singharaja Forest Reserve is the most famous rainforest of the country. This tropical rain forest is a living heritage. Bio diversity of the forest is very high and a large proportion of the flora in this forest is endemic to the country and some endemic to the Singharaja Forest itself. This is a very good place to see many endemic birds such as Ceylon Lorikeet, Layard’s parakeet, Jungle and Spur Fowl, Ceylon Wood Pigeon, Grey Hombill, Spotted wing Thrush, Rufous and Brown- capped Babbler, Ashy-headed Laughing Thrush, Ceylon Blue Magpie, White Headed Starling, Ceylon Hill Mynha, Legge’s Flowerpecker. The clear cut roads in to the jungle provide easy access to the forest. This important forest is a Man and Biosphere Forest reserve and it is considered as a World Heritage Site.

  1. IUCN Management Category  II (National Park), Biosphere Reserve, Natural World Heritage Site – Criteria ii, iv
  2. Geographical Location Situated in the south-west lowland wet zone of Sri Lanka, within Sabaragamuwa and Southern provinces. It is bounded on the north by the Napola Dola and Koskulana Ganga, on the south and south-west by the Maha Dola and Gin Ganga, on the west by the Kalukandawa Ela and Kudawa Ganga and on the east by an ancient footpath near Beverley Tea Estate and by the Denuwa Kanda. 6°21′-6°26’N, 80°21′-80°34’E

  3. Date and History of establishment Notified a national heritage wilderness area on 21 October 1988 (Gazette No. 528/14). Most of the area was originally declared a forest reserve on 3 May 1875 under the Waste Lands Ordinance and notified in the Ceylon Government Gazette No. 4046, dated 8 May 1875, while the rest was notified a proposed forest reserve in the early 20th century. Sinharaja Forest Reserve, comprising the existing and proposed forest reserves, was declared a biosphere reserve in April 1978, and inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1988.

  4. Area According to Gazette No. 528/14, the total area of the national heritage wilderness area is 18,899 acres and 12 perches (7,648.2ha). The area of the biosphere reserve and World Heritage site as cited in the respective nominations is 8,864ha, of which 6,092ha is forest reserve and 2,772ha is a proposed forest reserve.

  5. Land tenure State

  6. Altitude Ranges from 300m to 1,170m (Hinipitigala Peak).

  7. Physical features This narrow strip of undulating terrain consists of a series of ridges and valleys. It is drained by an intricate network of streams, which flow into the Gin Ganga on the southern boundary and Kalu Ganga, via the Napola Dola, Koskulana Ganga and Kudawa Ganga, on the northern boundary. The reserve lies within the transition zone of two important rock types characteristic of Sri Lanka. The south-western group consists of metasediments, charnokites and scapolite-bearing calc-granulites, while the highland group comprises khondalites of metamorphosed sediments and charnokites (Cooray, 1978). Mostsignificant is the presence of the Sinharaja Basic Zone, consisting of hornblende, pyriclasts, basic charnokites, pyroxene amphibolites and scapolite-bearing calc-granulites and blended with small amounts of quartzites, garnet-biotite gneisses and intermediate charnokites (Hapuarachi et al., 1964). This zone coincides with an aeromagnetic anomaly, which has probably contributed to the desilication process responsible for the gem fields in the area (Katz, 1972; Munasinghe and Dissanayake, 1980). Soils, which largely belong to the red-yellow podzolic group, are well-drained and show very little accumulation of organic matter. This characteristic is attributed to a combination of favourable climatic conditions, a diverse soil microflora effecting rapid breakdown of organic matter into constituent nutrients, and accelerated uptake and recycling of nutrients by the trees. Clear-felling of the forest, where most of the nutrients are locked up, therefore renders the soil impoverished of essential nutrients and incapable of supporting sustained commercial forestry or agriculture (Forest Department, 1986). Information on soil profiles and soil microfungi are given in Zoysa and Raheem (1987).

  8. Climate Based on meteorological records gathered from in and around Sinharaja over the last 60 years, annual rainfall has ranged from 3614mm to 5006mm and temperatures from 19°C to 34°C (Zoysa and Raheem, 1987). Most precipitation emanates from the south-west monsoons during May-July and the north-east monsoons during November-January. Conditions are dry in February.

  9. Vegetationspan style=”font-size: small;”>Two main types of forest can be recognised. Remnants of Dipterocarpus forest occur in valleys and on their lower slopes, with hora D. zeylanicus and bu hora D. hispidus present in almost pure stands. Secondary forest and scrub occur where the original forest cover has been removed by shifting cultivation and in other places the forest has been replaced by rubber and tea plantations (Rosayro, 1954). Mesua-Doona (Shorea) forest, the climax vegetation over most of the reserve, covers the middle and upper slopes above 500m (Rosayro, 1942) or above 335m as suggested by Gunatilleke and Gunatilleke (1985). Garcinia hermonii followed by Xylopia championii invariably dominate the understorey tree stratum, a range of species dominate the subcanopy and na Mesua nagassarium usually predominates in the canopy layer (Gunatilleke and Gunatilleke, 1985). Details about the structure and composition of the vegetation are summarised by Zoysa and Raheem (1987). Of Sri Lanka’s 830 endemic species, 217 trees and woody climbers are found in the lowland wet zone (Peeris, 1975). Of these, 139 (64%) have been recorded in Sinharaja (Gunatilleke and Gunatilleke, 1985), 16 of which are considered to be rare (Gunatilleke and Gunatilleke, 1981). Other rare endemics are the palm Loxococcus rupicola (R) and Atalantia rotundifolia, the latter being restricted to Sinhagala at 742m. Of 211 recorded species of trees and woody climbers, 40% have low population densities (less than or 10 or fewer individuals per 25ha) and 43% have restricted distributions, rendering them vulnerable to further encroachments into the reserve (Gunatilleke and Gunatilleke, 1981). A variety of plants of known benefit to man are present, of which palm kitul Caryota urens (for jaggery, a sugar substitute), wewal Calamus sp. (for cane), cardamom Elattaria ensal (as spice), Shorea sp. (for flour), dun Shorea sp. (for varnish and incense) and weniwal Coscinium fenestratum (for medicinal purposes) are used intensively by villagers. A list of 202 plants, together with their endemicity and uses is given in the draft conservation plan (Forest Department, 1985).

  10. Fauna An early account of the fauna is given by Baker (1937). Preliminary lists of the fauna (viz. mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fishes and butterflies) have been compiled (March for Conservation, 1985) and are included in the draft conservation plan (ForestDepartment, 1985). Endemism is high, particularly for birds with 19 (95%) of 20 species endemic to Sri Lanka present. Endemism among mammals and butterflies is also greater than 50%. Threatened mammals are leopard Panthera pardus and Indian elephant Elephas maximus (E). The endemic purple-faced langur Presbytis senex is present. Birds considered to be endangered or rare (Hoffmann, 1984) are Sri Lanka wood pigeon Columba torringtoni, green-billed coucal Centropus chlororhynchus, Sri Lanka white-headed starling Sturnus senex, Sri Lanka blue magpie Cissa ornata, and ashy-headed babbler Garrulax cinereifrons, all of which are endemic, and red-faced malkoha Phaenicophaeus pyrrhocephalus. Of interest is the presence of Sri Lanka broad-billed roller Eurystomus orientalis irisi (I), sightings of which have decreased markedly in the last five years (Zoysa and Raheem, 1987). Of the reptiles and amphibia, python Python molurus is vulnerable and a number of endemic species are likely to be threatened. Noteworthy species include Calotes liolepis, the rarest of all Agamids on the island, the rare rough-nose horned lizard Ceratophora aspera, restricted to part of Sri Lanka’s wet zone, and Ramella palmata, a rare endemic microhylid (Zoysa and Raheem, 1987). Threatened freshwater fish are combtail Belontia signata (R), smooth-breasted snakehead Channa orientalis (R), black ruby barb Barbus nigrofasciatus (V), cherry barb Barbus titeya (V) and red-tail goby Sicydium halei (V), the conservation status of which is considered in Evans (1981). Of the 21 species of endemic butterfly, Sri Lanka rose Atrophaneura jophon is vulnerable (Collins and Morris, 1985). Sri Lankan five-bar sword Graphium antiphates ceylonicus, which is considered to be very rare, is not uncommon in Sinharaja at certain times of the year (J.N. Banks, pers. comm., 1986). Zoysa and Raheem (1987) comprehensively summarise what is known about the fauna.

  11. Cultural Heritage The Sinharaja region has long featured in the legends and lore of the people of Sri Lanka. Its name, literally meaning lion (sinha) king (raja), perhaps refers to the original ‘king-sized or royal forest of the Sinhalese’, a people of the legendary ‘lion-race’ of Sri Lanka (Hoffmann, 1979), or to the home of a legendary lion of Sri Lanka.

  12. Local and Human Population There are two villages within the south-west of the reserve, namely Warukandeniya and Kolonthotuwa, and about 52 families live in the north-western sector. At least 20 other settlements occur on the periphery, an unknown number of which have been illegally established on state land without approval from the relevant authorities. The total population is in excess of 5,000 people. Some land adjacent to the reserve is under private ownership, including small tea and rubber plantations. The extent to which local people are economically dependent on rain forest resources is variable but about 8% of households might be completely dependent (Silva, 1985).

  13. Visitors and Visitor Facilities Visitors are low in number and mostly naturalists. Entry is by permit, obtainable from the Forest Department in Colombo. There are nature trails to the peaks of Moulawella and Sinhagala. Guidebooks to the Moulawella Trail and to the secondary vegetation have recently been prepared (Gunatilleke et al., 1987a, 1987b). Some accommodation is available with the Forest Department near the reserve entrance at Kudawa. Further facilities are planned.

  14. Scientific research an Facilities Among the earliest studies are those of Baker (1937, 1938). Rosayro (1954, 1959), Andrews (1961) and Merritt and Ranatunga (1959) assessed the area’s potential for selective logging, based on aerial and ground surveys. Gunatilleke and Gunatilleke (1980, 1981, 1985) examined the floristic composition and phytosociology of woody vegetation and assessed its conservation value. Research on theendemic fauna has been undertaken by WWF/IUCN (Project 1733) and March for Conservation (Karunaratne et al., 1981). Conflicts over the local use of forest resources have been examined by McDermott (1985, 1986) and Silva (1985). An annotated vegetation/land-use map (1:40,000) of the reserve has been produced by the Forest Department (n.d.). The Natural Resources Energy and Science Authority of Sri Lanka has provided a field research station in the reserve. The Forest Department building at Kudawa, outside the reserve, is used by scientists and visitors.

  15. Covservation Value Sinharaja is the last extensive primary lowland tropical rain forest in Sri Lanka. It holds a large number of endemic species of plants and animals, and a variety of plants of known benefit to man. Sinharaja Forest Reserve is the last viable remnant of Sri Lanka’s tropical lowland rain forest; over 60% of the trees are endemic and many of these are rare; and there are 21 endemic bird species, and a number of rare insects, reptiles and amphibians (IUCN Technical Evaluation).

  16. Conservation Management Sinharaja is administered by the Forest Department under the Ministry of Lands and Land Development. Recognising the need for maximum possible protection, it has recently been declared as a national heritage wilderness area under the National Heritage Wilderness Areas Act. Any excision to such an area is permissible only with the concurrence of parliament and the President of the country. The site is also partially protected under the provisions of the Forest Ordinance. Sinharaja was first recognised in 1936 as being “the only considerable patch of virgin tropical rain-forest in the island” (Baker, 1937). Owing to its inaccessibility and steep, hilly terrain, the reserve remained untouched until 1968 when a government directive was issued to extract timber for the plywood sawmill and chipwood complex established at Kosgama. From 1971 until 1977, when logging was banned, largely due to public pressure with the Wildlife and Nature Protection Society playing a leading role (see Hoffmann, 1972, 1977), about 1,400ha of forest in the western sector were selectively logged (Gunatilleke, 1978; Forest Department, 1986). Presently, the reserve has 6,500-7,000ha of unlogged forest. Since 1977, the Forest Department has given high priority to protecting the reserve and in 1978 began planting Pinus caribaea along the periphery to establish a live boundary. More recently, betelnut palm Areca catechu has been used for this purpose (Zoysa and Raheem, 1987).

  17. A conservation plan has been officially approved (Forest Department, 1986), implementation of which is being carried out under a cooperative agreement between IUCN and the Sri Lankan government, with additional funding from the Norwegian government (Hails, 1989). In order to ensure the strict protection of the reserve for scientific and aesthetic reasons, a scheme of zonation and management is proposed for areas outside the reserve. The creation and propagation of essential forest products, for sustained utilisation, in areas outside the reserve is intended to meet local needs and thereby eliminate former dependence on resources within the reserve. Alternative strategies are either to establish a 3.2km-wide buffer zone round the reserve or to enlarge the area protected to about 47,380ha, with the reserve forming a strictly protected core area and surrounding areas set aside as buffers for various uses. The only resource which may still be legally collected, under permit, is kitul (McDermott, 1988). The preferred strategy has been to freeze resource use within the reserve at 1985 levels (when the conservation plan was prepared) and gradually eliminate futureresource dependency on the reserve by relocating villages to areas outside the reserve (Ishwaran and Erdelen, 1990).

  18. Management Costraints Of the many constraints to the protection of Sinharaja, socio-economic ones relating to the people and organisations in the immediate vicinity of the reserve are perhaps among the most important. Encroaching cultivations are probably the biggest problem, particularly along the southern boundary (McDermot, 1985). Contractors open up routes to facilitate logging operations and, although no felling is permitted within 1.6km of the reserve boundary, this may render the reserve more accessible to illicit timber operations. Planting of Honduran mahogany Swietenia macrophylla along abandoned logging trails as an enrichment species may lead to displacement of natural species, especially as it is a prolific seed producer (Zoysa and Raheem, 1987). Alleged malpractices by the State Timber Corporation are a source of concern for the Forest Department. Private land owners along the periphery perhaps make illegitimate use of timber resources within the reserve: having felled all merchantable timber on their own land, they continue to request permits for timber (Hathurusinghe, 1985). The most important forest produce is firewood, significant quantities of which are used in the production of jaggery (McDermot, 1985; Silva, 1985). The traditional use of minor forest products, most important of which are kitul for jaggery and wewal or cane for weaving baskets, is now restricted to forest surrounding the reserve. Illicit gem mining was considered to be a serious problem in eastern parts of the reserve. It is organised mostly by wealthy merchants from outside the Sinharaja region and needs to be stopped. The lack of a uniform land-use policy and the multiplicity of governmental and semi-governmental agencies involved in land-use planning in Sri Lanka are the major administrative constraints in evolving a suitable protection plan for Sinharaja. For the moment, transactions related to lands surrounding the reserve are suspended under presidential order until such time as the conservation plan for the reserve is ready for implementation (Forest Department, 1986).

  19. Local Address Range Forest Officer, Range Forest Office, Kudawa, Weddagala (An assistant conservator of forests will eventually be responsible for implementing the conservation plan.)

    Trail Map of Sinharaja
    Compiled By L.A.M.C.Amarasekara
    Forestry and environment socitey, University of Sri Jayewardenepura

CODE OF ETHICS for Research on Biological Diversity involving Access to Genetic Resources of Sri Lanka

Document published by Biodiversity Secretariat
Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources
82, Rajamalwatta Road,
Battaramulla, Sri Lanka


Sri Lanka is an island nation, which has a high level of biological diversity and a high percentage of endemic fauna and flora.

The Convention on Biological Diversity, which Sri Lanka and the vast majority of the nations of the world have ratified, has as two of its three objectives: (a) the conservation of biological diversity and (b) the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources.

In regard to the provision for providing access to genetic resources and sharing of benefits, the Convention on Biological Diversity, recognizing that States have sovereign rights over their biological resources (Art. 5), sets out inter alia that:

(a) Each State shall endeavour to create conditions to facilitate access to genetic resources for environmentally sound uses by other States; and access where granted shall be on mutually agreed terms (Art. 15,2 & 4)

(b) Access to genetic resources shall be subject to prior informed consent of the Contracting Party providing such resources, unless otherwise determined by that Party (Art. 15, 5)

(c) Each Contracting Party shall endeavour to develop and carry out scientific research based on genetic resources provided by other contracting parties, with the full participation of, and where possible in, such Contracting Parties (Art. 15, 6)

(d) Each Contracting Party shall take legislative, administrative or policy measures, as appropriate, with the aim of sharing in a fair and equitable way the results of research and development and the benefits arising from the commercial and other utilization of genetic resources with the Contracting Party providing such resources; such sharing shall be on mutually agreed terms (Art. 15, 7)

(e) Each Contracting Party shall take legislative, administrative or policy measures, as appropriate, with the aim that Contracting Parties, in particular those that are developing countries, which provide genetic resources are provided access to and transfer of technology which makes use of those resources, on mutually agreed terms (Art. 16, 3)

The Ministry in charge of the subject of environment holds the national responsibility for ensuring that the provisions of the Convention on Biological Diversity are adhered to by Sri Lanka as a Party to the Convention.


Research on biological diversity means research on the variability among living organisms as well as research on any of the components of biological diversity, which components shall include any active or dormant stage or life form, or any genetic material thereof, of an entity characterized as living, including plants, bacteria, algae, fungi, phytoplasmas, mycoplasmas, mycoplasma-like entities, protozoa, vertebrate and invertebrate fauna, as well as entities such as viruses, viroids, plasmids, phages, or any living entity related thereto whether natural or modified, as well as metabolites and other extracts of organisms to be used for research and development purposes.

Genetic material means any material of plant, animal, microbial or other origin containing functional units of heredity.


Any person or institution (hereinafter referred to as the researcher) engaged in or proposing to engage in research on the biological diversity of Sri Lanka that will involve the transfer out of the country of genetic material or metabolites and other extracts of organisms shall conform to the following requirements:

(1) Research on the biological diversity of Sri Lanka shall, as far as possible, be carried out in Sri Lanka, and by Sri Lankans or with the active participation of Sri Lankans.

(2) The researcher shall inform the Biodiversity Secretariat of the Ministry in charge of the subject of environment of the nature of the proposed research, and specifically (a) whether foreign nationals or foreign institutions will be involved and if so the nature and extent of such involvement, and (b) full details of the genetic material or metabolites or other extracts of organisms that will be sent out of the country. In either case the purpose must be disclosed fully; failure to do so will be tantamount to a breach of this code.

(3) Having regard to the facts as stated by the researcher, if the Biodiversity Secretariat is of the view that the research may give rise to discoveries leading to the development of commercial products or processes, an agreement in a form approved by the Ministry in charge of the subject of environment acting on the advice of the National Science Foundation and any other government institution shall be signed by the party abroad; such agreement shall inter alia embody clauses, as appropriate, for ensuring that Sri Lanka receives an equitable share of the benefits from the proposed research and development.

(4) If the Biodiversity Secretariat is of the view that the research would not give rise to discoveries leading to the development of commercial products or processes, the Biodiversity Secretariat shall inform the researcher that no agreement in the form specified in Section 3 need be signed.

(5) If, in the course of the research work, there are changes in the research protocol (from that reported earlier) or in the scope of foreign collaboration, details of such changes shall forthwith be reported to the Biodiversity Secretariat for a fresh determination of whether an agreement in terms of Section 3 has to be signed, or, if an agreement has already been signed, whether any amendments to the agreement would have to be made.

(6) This Code does not obviate the requirements under existing laws, rules and regulations, of the researcher obtaining the approval of the appropriate institutions for carrying out the proposed research; using any particular site; collecting biological material; or exporting genetic material, metabolites or other extracts of organisms.

(7) Notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 3,4 and 5 of this Code, in cases where foreign nationals and/or institutions are involved in research on biodiversity, the collaborating Sri Lankan researcher and/or the institution to which he is attached shall, where considered appropriate by the Ministry, through an agreement, exchange of letters, or other suitable instrument, with regard to the sharing of information, publication of results, lodging of samples and other relevant matters, ensure that Sri Lanka shares equitably in the results of the research.

(8) In the event of a breach of the provisions of this Code, the Ministry and/or any other government organization concerned reserves the right to cause a cessation activities and to “blacklist” the researcher concerned.

Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources (2004) Code of Ethics for Research on Biological Diversity involving Access to Genetic Resources, Biodiversity Secretariat, Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, 6 pp. (ISBN 955-9120-30-1)
For details contact Mr. Gamini Gamage, Director, Biodiversity Secretariat, Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, Battaramulla, Sri Lanka



Sri Lanka is one of the smallest, but biologically diverse countries in Asia. Consequently it is recognized as a Biodiversity hotspot of global and national importance. Its varied climate and topographical conditions have given rise to this rich species diversity, believed to be the highest in Asia in terms of unit land area.

Much of the species are endemic, a reflection of the island’s separation from the Indian subcontinent since the late Mesozoic. This is especially relevant for mammals, amphibians, reptiles and flowering plants. These species are distributed in a wide range of ecosystems which can be broadly categorized into forest, grassland, aquatic, coastal, marine and cultivated. The diversity of ecosystems in the country has resulted in a host of habitats, which contain high genetic diversity.

Biodiversity includes species diversity, genetic diversity and ecosystem diversity.

Species diversity – fauna and flora

An interesting feature of the species diversity in Sri Lanka is its high degree of endemism, which is observed in several taxonomic groups. Even more interesting is distribution of endemics. A large proportion is found in the wet zone in the south western region of the island.

Flora – Twenty three percent of the flowering plants are endemic and most of them are confined to the wet evergreen and wet montane forests of the central and southwest part of the country.
Vegetational analysis has resulted in the identification of fifteen different floristic regions with the great majority being found in the wet and intermediate zones. The presence of many floristic regions within a relatively small area is a reflection of the high level of ecosystem diversity in the country.

– The fauna of Sri Lanka is as diverse as the flora. While sharing common features with the neighboring subcontinent, the fauna exhibits very high endemism among the less mobile groups. With taxonomical revisions and descriptions of new species the number of species in each group keeps changing.

For endemic species, the distribution patterns are similar to the flora: the wet zone has many more endemic species than the dry zone. In terms of mammals, birds and fishes, the three major groups that are well studies in Sri Lanka, each group has a different distribution pattern.

Genetic diversity

Genetic diversity is the component of biodiverstiy that this least documented. Almost all of the available information is confined to economically important agricultural crops. The Plant Genetic Resource Centre (PGRC) at Gannuoruwa, Peradeniya has collected and preserved propagative material of a large number of species from various agro-climatic zones of the country. For example PGRC has germoplasm materials of 3194 traditional varieties and cultivars, and 17 wild relatives of Rice (Oryza sativa).

For fauna, there have been some studies on elephants (Elephas maximus) and leopards (Panthera pardus), which indicate a decrease in genetic diversity as a consequence of natural isolation from Indian sub-continent.

Ecosystem diversity

There is a wide range of ecosystem diversity in the island. The major natural ecosystems in the country are forests, grasslands, inland wetlands, and coastal and marine ecosystems. It also includes agricultural ecosystems.

Forests varying from wet evergreen forests (both lowland and montane), dry mixed evergreen forests to dry thorn forests. Grasslands are found in montane and low country Inland wetlands include a complex network of rivers and freshwater bodies. Marine ecosystems include sea-grass beds, coral reefs, estuaries and lagoons and mangrove swamps.

Sri Lanka: One of 25 World’s Biodiversity Hot Spots

Sri Lanka has been identified by the environment activist group Conservation International (CI) as one of 25 biodiversity hot spots in the world.
These hot spots could have maximum benefit by preservation efforts, the magazine said in a cover story titled “Heroes for the Planet: Earth Angles”. The U.S.-based CI said that together with Western India, Sri Lanka, the island in the Indian ocean, accounts for 2,180 plant species that are unique to each hot spot. Sri Lanka’s tropical rain forest ecosystem is considered as an area which is disturbed by human activity, but still exceptionally rich in animal and plant species found nowhere else.
Environment Division, Ministry of Transport, Environment and Women’s Affairs (1994) Strategy for the preparation of a biodiversity action plan for Sri Lanka. Prepared by IUCN and Ministry of TEWA. Forest Sector Master Plan (1995) Forestry Planning Unit, Minsitry of Agriculture, Lands and Forestry.