Human– wildlife conflict: issues, effects and conservation

O.S. Ojo¹, O. Akinyemi¹, A.I. Sodimu¹, B.S. Ojelade² and W.A. Jayeoba¹

Human – wildlife conflict was reviewed with the objectives of examining human – wildlife conflict and its effect especially those caused by crop raiding. Reports, write ups, textbooks, articles and materials from the internet by experts and professionals on the issue of human – wildlife conflict and the importance of conservation were all reviewed for the paper. The paper examines issues relating and emanating from human – wildlife conflict, its effect especially those caused by crop raiding and managing these effects in ensuring conservation. The need for conservation arises so as to protect wild animals perceived as threat to farmlands thus preventing the species from becoming endangered. The encroachment of wild habitats by subsistence farmers in Africa as a result of increased population is on the increase and this calls for concern. Crop raiding by wild animals is one of the major causes of human – wildlife conflict. Crop raiding can be simply defined as wild animals moving from their natural habitat onto agricultural land to feed on the produce that human grow for their own consumption. Some of the methods used in combating crop raiding include; Chasing crop raiders, Guarding scarecrows, plastic flags, Fireworks, Use of scents, Fences, Hunting, Trapping, poisoning. Some of these measures put in place portend danger to wild animal population. Conservation becomes important so as to protect the wild animal and its habitat encroached by man. The losses occasioned by wild animal activities will also need to be addressed so as to reduce crop losses. It is therefore recommended among other things that the need for conservation should be paramount in habitat management involving wild animals and humans, training and capacity building through extension services highlighting the need for conservation to the local community (farmers), adaptive management and applied research into the concept of crop raiding so as to reduce its resulting effects and also recognizing human – wildlife as one of the most critical conservation challenges facing protected areas today.

O.S. Ojo¹, O. Akinyemi¹, A.I. Sodimu¹, B.S. Ojelade² and W.A. Jayeoba¹

¹Federal College of Forestry Mechanization, Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, P.M.B 2273, Afaka, Kaduna State. ²B2/82, Federal Housing Estate, Ita Elega, Abeokuta, Ogun State

 

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