Trends and process of Kithul tapping as an aspect of forest utilization (A case study on the village Warukandeniya situated within Sinharaja)

The Sinharaja forest reserve is one of the least disturbed and biologically unique Tropical Wet Evergreen Rain Forests in Sri Lanka located in the Southern as well as Sabaragamuwa provinces in the wet zone.In addition, the forest reservation comprises two isolated villages located within it and twenty-five villages at its vicinity. Many of the villagers from these villages have practiced Kithul tapping over years. The study area of the research- Warukandeniya is one of the villages situated within the southern division of the forest and sited in Nelluwa divisional secretariat in Galle district. The foremost objective of the research is to study and analyze the trends and process of Kithul tapping as one of the methods of forest utilization and to critically overview its impact on the forest reservation. In the study participatory observation, interviews, semi- structural interviews, questionnaires and case- studies were mainly used as the research methods. In accordance with the research findings, the process of kithul tapping can be recognized as both economic and cultural practice. Most of the kithul groves within the forest area or at the vicinity are inherited and the ownership of these groves has been passed from father to son over generations. Further, even though the sudden economic boom occurred in 1970s at the buffer zones of Sinharaja because of tea plantation was able to hinder the need for kithul tapping as a source of income generation, still the practice of kithul tapping holds a noticeable importance as one of the major economic activities in the study area. In addition, as contemporary trends in Kithul tapping, use of modern technology, lack of quality maintenance in production and renouncing the traditional ways of kithul tapping can be identified. Additionally, it is clear that corresponding to the changes arise in the process of kithul tapping the associated cultural and social aspects are subjected to vary.

Category/Keywords: Forest Resource Utilisation & Sustainable Management / forest utilization , kithul tapping

H.I.G.C. Kumara and R. A. W. D. Jayawardena
University of Ruhuna

ustainable Forest Management: A Pragmatic Approach

Galicia is the most important forestry region of Spain, but its potential of producing the forest products is underdeveloped. A healthy and growing forestry sector could be an engine for regional and rural economic development, but forest management is impeded by forest ownership patterns. Most forests in Galicia are privately owned in small, scattered holdings that make it difficult to carry out the sustainable forest management required for forest sector development.

A comprehensive sustainable forest management (SFM) strategy, based upon internationally recognized principles of sustainability, has been proposed as a means of rectifying the situation in Galicia. This strategy involves eight lines of actions that include such initiatives as improved legislation, increased public education and participation, and a new process for sustainable forest management that would be run by the government.

This paper outlines the strategy, then goes on to describe new forest management processes and supporting technologies that are seen as necessary for promoting sustainable forest management in a region predominated by small forest ownerships. The new process will be based upon hierarchical and integrated forest management concepts, but will involve innovative approaches to regional and forest district management. The paper ends with a brief description of the initial steps that have been taken to implement the SFM Strategy of Galicia.

E W Robak and J Aboal
University of New Brunswick, Canada

Estimating Above Ground Biomass of Pinus caribaea stand in lower Hantana

Over 18, 000 ha of degraded wet lowland areas in Sri Lanka have been converted to Pinus caribaea plantations through an afforestation program. These plantations are poorly managed and subject to frequent fires, set by local people who do not see much value in them for their subsistence. Consequently, these plantations remain under-productive and under-utilized, particularly due to the paucity of plant and economic diversity for rural development. In response to this a Pinus enrichment trial has been launched to restore plant and economic diversity in these biodiversity poor monoculture plantations. In this field trial, in Hantana on land belonging to the University of Peradeniya, selected rows of Pines were removed. We used this opportunity to estimate the above ground biomass of P. caribaea.

Total tree height, stem diameter at the two ends of the stem, middle and immediately below the lowest live branch were recorded at the time of logging. From each tree, fresh samples of stem discs at the root collar, middle and the end were collected, sealed in polythene bags and dry weights were measured at 700 C. Fresh weight of the branches, needles and cones were determined. Sub samples of these were taken for determination of fresh weight: dry weight ratios.

In our study we predicted the tree form. Pine tree trunks are cylindrical at the lower part and conical at the upper part. Empirical formulae were derived separately to estimate biomass for the cylindrical part and the conical part of the tree. These formulae are site specific to the P. caribaea plantations in Hantana. Using the formulae, the above ground biomass of a 25-yr-old P. caribaea stand was calculated as 194 tha-1. Of the live standing crop the stem represented 60%, the branches 17%, the leaves 13%, the cones 3% and dead branches 7%. This Pine stand had 695 Pine trees ha-1, a mean dbh of 20.1 cm, a mean height of 20.7 m and mean basal area of 23.6 m2 ha-1. The estimated values showed that the P. caribaea plantation studied is good source for carbon sequestration.

I M Ambagahaduwa, I A U N Gunatilleke, G Seneviratne and C V S Gunatilleke
Department of Botany, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka

Biofertilizers for physic nut (Jatropha curcas l.) grown in different planting media

Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.), locally known as Kasla, is a small tree of plant family Euphorbiaceae, that grows widely in the Philippines. It has recently gained global interest because of its seed oil that can be used for blending with diesel producing an ecology-friendly biofuel as an alternative source of energy. This study compared the early growth response of Physic nut to the interactions of single seed inoculation of biofertilizers Azotobacter, Effective Microorganisms (EM), and Bio N and different planting media consisted of garden soil (Sta. Rita clay loam), humus (decomposed rice hull), river sand, and their mixture on 1:1:1 ratio over the uninoculated control. It was carried out in a 4 x 4 factorial experiment in randomized complete block design with 16 treatment combinations and four replications.

Azotobacter x 1:1:1 mixture and EM x humus interactions produced significantly (P<0.05) taller plants. Fresh matter weight per plant was significantly (P<0.05) highest in Azotobacter x Humus and Bio N x Humus interactions. Leaf count, shoot base diameter, and dry matter weight per plant, on the other hand, were not significantly (P>0.05) affected by the biofertilizers and planting media interaction. Humus showed to be most promising growing mediun for Kasla as revealed by the significant (P<0.05) results in plant height, leaf count, shoot base diameter, fresh matter weight, and dry matter weight per plant. A 1:1:1 mixture, however, can be a good alternative. Using garden soil, either EM or Bio N can be used. However, with sand as a planting medium, EM can be applied as a seed microinoculant

E. S. Elefan
Central Philippine University, Philippine